CMO.com turned to its array of contributors, colleagues, and staff and asked them what they envision the new year will bring for the digital marketing world. From new shopping behavior, to making sense of big data, to social TV and a mobile majority, their range of answers is staggering. Here is what they said we can expect in the coming 12 months.
Marketers will gradually develop a smarter understanding of digital convergence–how different media complement each other rather than all becoming the same thing. For instance, media consumption on tablets will grow exponentially but more as a “lean-back” activity (comparable to how we watch TV and read magazines) and less like the way we use either laptops or smartphones. Social media–both private brand communities and the big, open sites like Facebook and Twitter–will increasingly be used for insight as well as promotion. Other predictions are that TV viewing will not massively switch to on-demand; we will not see individually addressable TV advertising on a useful scale for many years, if ever; and marketers will find that (duh!) branded games don’t work unless people enjoy playing them.
>> Patrick Barwise, Emeritus Professor, London Business School
The missing ingredient for every CMO in 2012 is agility, and the biggest trend Monetate sees for marketers moving forward is finding ways to add agility to their marketing operations. Agility is essential to running a world-class marketing operation, and the fact is that a lot of marketers feel overwhelmed with the pressure to meet quickly changing consumer expectations. In daily operations, marketers are constrained by their internal systems, and they’re frustrated that they cannot consistently and effectively execute on what consumers expect. They are being challenged to handle complex ideas and be relevant across new consumer touchpoints, and they are also challenged to meet rapidly evolving business expectations as well as the market expectations of consumers thanks to social tools. Furthermore, there is now a level of visibility placed on marketing activity unlike ever before as each interaction is amplified because every consumer is now a broadcaster on social media.
The good news is that new technologies now add enhanced levels of agility to marketing operations and offer CMOs the ability to empower the whole organization to bring consistency to all of the disparate consumer touchpoints including content management, e-commerce, in-store, email campaigns, etc.
>> David Brussin, CEO, Monetate
Changing Shopper Behavior
Three trends will finally converge as digital hardware, infrastructure, and programming all continue to explode. First, nearing 100% penetration of some device “mobile” and broader 4G availability will propel video streaming. Then new forms of device identification will finally enable real two-way communication for one-to-one marketing, customized messages, and market research. Last and most important, massive increases in advertisers’ digital spending will incite continued voracious expansion and creativity in digital offerings. So many program options have been invented in the past year or two. We predict 2012 will be the year these marketing innovations will expand dramatically.
For marketers, this trifecta will result sudden realization that integrated consumer and shopper marketing budgets are not keeping pace with digital shopper innovation. This is going to create increased pressure on marketers to more strategically align marketing objectives with the “right” mix of digital elements, specifically as it relates to changing shopper behavior, blurring online, in-store, and on-the-go channels. The tendency now is to do a little of everything, try to keep up, and hopefully learn along the way. This approach will be sustainable going forward, particularly as mobile capabilities expand rapidly. In 2012 and particularly in planning for 2013 and beyond, it will be time for marketers to re-evaluate their total spending—consumer, shopper, trade—and stop thinking about digital marketing as a separate spend, but rather a new way.
>> Alison Chaltas, Executive Vice President, GfK Interscope
NEXT PAGE: The power of 10.
Power Of 10
1. In 2007, social media went mainstream with consumers with the rise of Facebook. For digital businesses, 2012 is when they will finally catch up to the consumers as social marketing solutions go mainstream with marketers.
2. Social and mobile have long danced with each other. However, with smartphones and tablets going mainstream, social and mobile will finally get married. Throw in location-based services, and that’s an unbeatable threesome (what?!) that delights consumers with surprising new applications and services.
3. Cashless payment transactions have long been the domain of credit-card providers, banks, and networks like Visa, MasterCard, and American Express. 2012 will set the stage for tech companies (like Apple, Google, Amazon and a variety of startups like Squareup) to move into mobile payments.
4. The Web was originally designed around hyperlinked documents. First Friendster, then MySpace, Facebook, LinkedIn, and finally Google+ have each iterated the Web to pivot around social. The social graph–connections between people–is the new Web.
5. There are several disruptive technologies that have emerged over the past few years–gamification, 3D video, IPTV, multiuser gaming, and augmented reality. Consumers will continue to lead digital marketers in the adoption of these innovations. And maybe one more of these technologies will go mainstream next year, forcing digital marketers to follow.
6. If companies believe they are drowning in data now, you ain’t seen nothing yet. “Big Data” of today will be “Small Potatoes” from yesterday.
7. Flexible, collapsible, film-like display surfaces are on the edge of reality. That means, in the not too distant future, a consumer will be surrounded by many more digital surfaces that they are today. The possibilities are endless!
8. Virginia M. Rometty will take over IBM as the CEO on Jan 1, 2012. A lot of industry pundits are focused on the fact that one of the world’s largest tech companies will be a woman CEO. I believe she is the first of many marketers to move to the CEO’s office. Today’s digital marketer is tomorrow’s CEO.
9. Facebook will hit 1 billion users in 2012. The big question, though, is will it be the first company to break the $100 billion IPO barrier?
10. Finally, someday, Siri will ponder the question “Who Am I?” .. and a new generation of intelligence will be born. Or maybe not.
>> Aseem Chandra VP, Product & Industry Marketing, Adobe's Digital Marketing Business Unit
NEXT PAGE: Digital is a tool.
Digital Is A Tool
Marketing folks who are very savvy about digital marketing and who also have depth of experience in high-touch "analog" marketing will find themselves in greater demand as sales continues to drive marketing back to reality. Digital is not "the answer;" it's one important tool in the hands of marketers who know how to drive revenues.
>> Nick Corcodilos, Ask The Headhunter, CMO.com
Marketers know they need to monetize “Big Data”–all of their offline and online customer interactions–into driving buying opportunities. The economy is too fragile and global competition is too tough to act otherwise. The days of slamming out campaigns are over. Marketers need to transform Big Data into actionable customer intelligence that drives marketing at the right time to optimize revenue.
>> Joe Cordo, CMO, Extraprise
Taking Time To Listen
Too many companies will still focus on short-term ROI over ROR: return-on-relationships. Building relationships is about courtship: listening, asking questions, listening, entertaining, listening, involving, listening, being interesting, listening, being responsive, listening, and incremental steps. Oh, and listening. Engagement, and driving conversions, is about nurturing relationships–not trying to get to "I do" on the first date by creating the shortest path to a sale or donation. Digital channels–online, social, mobile–level the playing field for organizations of all sizes that use them to scale content marketing. But you can't scale relationships. Relationships take time–time that many big brands, longstanding brands, and previously untouchable brands are not willing to make. And that makes them vulnerable to upstarts that value relationships as the driving force for returns.
>> Petri Darby, APR, director of marketing, communications and digital strategy, Make-A-Wish Foundation of America
Content Marketing, Refined
Content marketing is changing the way B2B marketers work. In fact, it is now the most-used marketing strategy and has paved the way for growth in practices such as content curation–the process of finding, organizing, and sharing information online. In the upcoming year, we will see the strategies that marketers utilize to create and distribute their own, as well as third party, content become more concentrated. Marketers will become more focused as they harness the emerging technologies that are now available in the field. We will continue to see the transition toward new online channels. Our prediction is that there will be one new online channel (think the Google+ of 2011), one new physical channel (an update to last year’s tablet), and one new medium for content (2012’s answer to the infographic). In addition, SEO will continue to play an even larger role in content creation and distribution. Marketers are continuing to recognize the significance of SEO and begin integrating material into their content that will yield the highest search rankings. As always, the most relevant, timely and fresh content will always have the greatest impact.
>> Pawan Deshpande, CEO, HiveFire
NEXT PAGE: Heads in the cloud.
Heads In The Cloud
More people will be going to the cloud. While cloud-based applications are clearly not new, consumers don’t see them as part of the cloud–just applications from their browsers. As our mobile devices get bigger and become more important to our day-to-day lives, having copies of our data will become both inconvenient and take too long through a USB cord. Consumers will want to know in real-time that their data is safe and will consider cloud as a primary storage device and not just a secondary backup. CMOs need to think through not only what solutions this drives but how consumers are going to see their messages and value their solutions.
Separately, the “nay-sayers” are trying to gather the small-minded around their campfire to joke about Siri. While it is impossible to predict how well Siri will do, particularly if it is limited to Apple iPhone devices, it will have two key effects. First, it will prove to consumers that there are better ways to input than just keyboards and remotes. Second, it will usher in a new realm of artificial intelligence applications. I first tried to sell an AI application 20 plus years ago, and we joked that if you asked two AI systems the same question, you would get two different answers. That’s not good in medical or insurance claims, but it’s fine for directions to the local McDonalds. Or a train timetable or a weather forecast.
Both of these trends together get you to a world where true microsegmentation may be more possible. Self-selecting consumers ask for what they want and you get to position yourself against their needs. The questions are going to be whether you are in the data stream and can you clearly communicate your message.
>> Nigel Dessau, Outgoing Senior Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer, AMD
Tactical Trend: Next-Generation Print Ads
It's getting so you can't get through a day without seeing some new example of bringing print ads to life. Whether executed as augmented reality, Aurasma tagging, QR-activated content, or even, amazingly, as actual video screens embedded in magazines, these tactics all seem to show promise in bridging the gap between online and offline engagement. This video showing such an effort for BMW in a German TV magazine is incredible.
Another trend: If we take the typical cycles of Internet evolution as a clue, Web 3.0 is coming soon. The Internet was born in 1983. Web 1.0 was 1993-2003. Web 2.0 looks like it may run 2003-2013. When Web 3.0 arrives, it'll bring three huge and lasting technological changes: the semantic Web, personalization, and pervasive connectivity. Each of these deep topics will have an affect on how brands and consumers use the Web. To wit, semantics will allow computers to understand the meaning of data, not just the literal interpretation of it. Personalization will deliver more and more Web content to us the way Facebook does–as a "window" to a stream of curated and tailored information, rather than a "page" of predetermined content. And finally, pervasive connectivity means we'll no longer have to tailor our use of the Web to our currently available connectivity; we'll have broadband-enabled full-power processing available 24/7.
>> Micah Donahue, Principal/Contact Strategy Director, Mechanica
Facing The Facts
We have always known (or at least suspected) that the most effective marketing is via word-of-mouth, face-to-face. Evidence that human beings want to participate, belong, and share experiences surrounds us—hence, the saturation level of social media. In 2012, marketers will continue to focus less on one-way messaging and more keenly on how digital resources can be utilized to instigate and enhance the experience of clients/customers/targets.
>> Eric Fletcher, Chief Marketing Officer, McGlinchey Stafford
We're hearing many companies using “mobile first” as their current mantra for how to think and act about their businesses, and we agree wholeheartedly. Mobile really made a splash in 2011, and we are expecting huge growth in 2012 from a technology perspective and believe it really will become a mecca for marketers. In addition, for years we’ve been talking about the Web taking over TV. We firmly believe that the Web, more accurately, has enhanced the power and potential of television. Today many consumers think of TV as the content that they watch. They don’t care what device they watch it on, be it a laptop, a mobile device, or the television itself. The blurring of these lines is even more interesting. We’ll be embracing video as a major way to speak to consumers, and at the end of the day it doesn’t matter what device it was consumed on. What matters is that they saw it and that we can track it, which we’ll also see improve in 2012.
>> Linda Gangeri, Manager, National Advertising, Volvo Cars of North America
NEXT PAGE: A balanced digital view.
A Balanced Digital View
For marketers, the most challenging trend will be more data. As social media become more measurable and dashboards become more prevalent, there will be more pressure to focus on the numbers and, correspondingly, more risk of forgetting about the customers that the data represent. So I hope a trend for 2012 will be to use digital in a balanced way as a listening tool and not just as a pushing tool. In 2011, the tendency has been to push. An example is motivating consumers to “Like” a brand by giving them coupons, points, or mileage. For 2012, a good trend would be to use digital, social, and mobile to really listen, which means doing more research and not just monitoring; asking customers what they need and want; asking defectors why they stopped buying; and hearing negative as well as positive feedback. That way, the dashboard data can be used to build the brand and build the business within the context of the customers it represents.
>> Dr. Marjorie Kalter, Clinical Professor, M.S. in Integrated Marketing Program, New York University
I see content directed to marketers becoming more interactive, dynamic, multisensory, and practical. Most content on the Web today is informational, educational, or promotional. Interesting, yes. Relevant, perhaps. But easy to apply practically on the job? Not so much. Different learning styles need to be accommodated. Marketers need to be in charge of their own discovery process. Whether their consumption preferences are fast-track aha's or deep dives, content must help them not only intellectually "get it," but internalize and act on the insight. The Web is full of directional guidance and detailed "how to" tutorials. What's really needed is better middleware-structured experiences that instill actionable insight to help marketers bridge the gap between the why, what, and how so they can get to the desired outcome.
>> Gary Katz, Chairman, Marketing Operations Future Forum
I anticipate some innovations around content recommendation for business customers. A lot of brand equity is built around trust, and one way to build trust is to share information that isn’t necessarily self-serving. So, for example, I would expect to see better methods of content discovery for professionals similar to the recommendation engines we’ve all experienced with Amazon, Apple, Netflix, Pandora, and others.
>> Jim Kelly, U.S. Brand Leader, PwC
Mobile As The Majority
I think there are two trends. One is mobile. Next year it’s pretty likely that close to or more than half of U.S. adults will own smartphones. Then it becomes a majority platform rather than just an emerging platform. The second trend is kind of related, but it’s that the physical will become more digital, such as with digital billboards and digital signage. Related to that, you’ll have digital devices and technologies that are able to interact with the physical, such as location-based services, smart codes, and augmented reality.
>> Dan Marks, CMO, First Tennessee
Let's Get Personal
Three promises made three years ago are coming true this next year—specifically, mobile experiences on the Web for personal and business, personalization across channels, and customer communities for sustained value. On the pure technology front, HTML 5 and the death of Flash will result in more interactive experiences and a lot of upgrading for websites. Lastly, for all digital marketers, regarding the usability of all tools from marketing automation, Web CMS, email, and analytics, we’ll see marketers demanding more advanced business-centric usability and engagement-oriented metrics that provide meaning.
>> Paul Markun, CMO, Sitecore
Lose The Clutter
This year we’ll see more premium investment on narrowcasting (reaching the few vs. many to drive deeper engagement with people who truly do value your brand), analytics (how to aggregate the plethora of user data intelligence and correlate it to business development planning and sales revenue performance), and, of course, mobile–smartphones, tablets, apps. There will be continued pressure to divert online communications from a crowded email environment to formats and channels with less clutter, and the appetite for online substitutes for face-to-face meetings will increase, seeking a middle ground between the standard WebEx and the high-end Virtual Presence technology. Technology will continue to be a driver in client and prospect communications, and those who separate novelty from true marketing and client relations benefits will be the winners.
>> Gayle Matthei-Meredith, Chief Marketing Officer, Principal, Cassidy Turley
NEXT PAGE: Real-time feedback.
With lines blurring between traditional and digital marketing vehicles, how consumers shop, socialize, and absorb content is rapidly changing. Consequently, driving brand engagement and loyalty by weaving a conversation with customers, across multiple touchpoints, throughout the decision-making cycle is critical. Brand building is no longer solely driven by paid advertising, but also by leveraging the digital marketplace and providing consumers with two-way, real-time feedback. Digital marketing has evolved from primarily using Google for promotion and sales-based activity into a highly creative platform that drives brand engagement through social media, such as Facebook, blogs and mobile apps. Since most marketers tend to be brand, digital, or loyalty experts, those who can figure out how to build and execute integrated brand strategies in this complex, new world by employing both analytical and innovative thinking will be in extremely high demand.
>> Margot McShane, Managing Director at Russell Reynolds Associates for the Marketing Officers Practice and Consumer Sector
Beyond Big Data
I don’t think there are going to be any major surprises in digital marketing in 2012. (It is now guaranteed that there will be some huge upheaval that no one expected.) What I do see happening is more and more CMOs realizing that Big Data—and the analysis of such—is a really big deal and deciding that they had better do something concrete about it sooner rather than later. In something of a 180, I also see the savviest of marketing leaders coming to the conclusion that data isn’t enough, and behavioral psychology and neuroscience marketing are key techniques to be ignored only at their peril.
>> Tim Moran, Editor In Chief, CMO.com
Marketing Attribution Management Goes Mainstream
From a performance measurement perspective, 2012 will be the year when marketing attribution management really goes mainstream and starts being recognized as an essential weapon in the advertising arsenal. This will enable marketing investment decisions to be made based on the strategies and tactics that really produce results, and not those that are simply the “last act” in a series of multiple marketing touches. From a strategic and tactical perspective, emerging channels and devices like mobile, video, social, tablets, etc., will gain greater pieces of the marketing pie as attribution enables the validation of their value without investing significant testing budget to do so.
>> Bill Muller, CMO, Visual IQ
May We Recommend…
In 2012, we'll see content recommendation become an important supplement to paid advertising and SEO. With smarter algorithms able to automatically read, categorize, tag, and organize articles and browser history, more and more people will be seeing "we also recommend" on their favorite Web sites. This will allow more personalized content discovery at a cheaper cost.
>> Jim Nichols, Vice President–Digital, Stern + Associates
Coolness Of Beauty
Given increased consumer expectations and decreased brand differentiation, brands will need to understand what really drives their category and where to innovate against consumer pain points. Zappos sells shoes, but its brand equity lies primarily in the emotional driver of “service” and how quickly it processes both delivery and returns. Oh, and it’s free, erasing a consumer irritation with innovation in delivery, and likely increasing sales in the process as ordering more became painless. In addition, creative response to consumer expectation will become de rigueur for brand leaders. Look for a desire for the coolness of beauty–whether a graceful delivery system or a gorgeous product–to escalate.
>> Dr. Robert Passikoff, Founder & President, Brand Keys
Big Brands Go Small
The biggest trend I am seeing is that larger brands like Pepsi are starting to give more work to smaller, more nimble digital agencies. Brands have discovered that smaller agencies, especially those that specialize, have become much more sophisticated, produce some of the best thinking and creativity, they aland so are much more motivated, nimble and flexible. The best small agencies attract talent that’s as good, if not better, than big agencies because of their cultures, and the odds of a brand getting the attention of senior people at a smaller agency is much higher.
>> Tony Quin, CEO, IQ
NEXT PAGE: Learn from the leaders.
Learn From The Leaders
I see 2012 as bringing smarter, more strategic approaches to social media. I think the current leaders will rapidly deploy new concepts and quickly integrate their strategy. The followers, however, will continue to experiment rather slowly and ineffectively with the medium. However, the one thing I think the followers will do in 2012 is to identify leaders they can learn from. The followers will see that Leading companies are doing the following four things to up their game: 1) integrating social media into their holistic customer strategies; 2) having an executive level champion for social media; 3) examining what is needed to derive social media’s true value, including asking the hard questions and then making deliberate decisions about the social media investments they are—or aren’t—willing to make; and 4) looking beyond Marketing to Sales and Service and beyond their own organization to how social media can improve their partner collaboration and innovation efforts. It’s really exciting to see leading companies harnessing the full potential of social media, and 2012 brings an opportunity for many more companies to do so.
>> Kevin Quiring, CRM Lead of North America, Accenture
Learn From The Leaders
1. Content will still reign king: Technologies and methods of communications might change, but this basic edict will not. Good quality content that is relevant and delivered at the right time, to the right person, and on the right device will be a baseline expectation for marketers
2. Playing games will get even more serious: Gamification will play a larger part in marketing initiatives and campaigns via incentives, loyalty programs, badges, etc. This year’s Super Bowl could set the bar for integrating gamification into multichannel marketing
3. Big data gets even bigger: The increase in cloud computing and data usage, plus customers' demanding access to information anytime, anywhere, will be the major reasons for this uptick. The needs for a singular consumer view, proving granular ROI, and better data visualization will force technology to bring this all together.
4. Mobile and social media no longer will cry wolf: In 2012 mobile and social will make the move to be looked at as platform strategies. 2012 will move way beyond just having a fan page and followers. Social and mobile will be part of the fabric of any multichannel campaign, and they will both need to be deeply measured. Investments will be higher, and look for location-based marketing to be a core component.
5. And last but not least: Kim Kardashian will marry someone from Jersey Shore; my money is on Paulie D.
>> Anoop Sahgal, Senior Manager, Suite Marketing, Adobe
ROI Pressure Cooker
There have been a number of predictions that digital ad spending may be flat or down a bit in 2012 versus 2011 and that TV has made a resurgence of late. If this is true, the pressure on marketers, digital publishers, and agencies to really understand the ROI of digital advertising will increase. Also, expect long-standing brand advertisers to start to scrutinize what social media, especially Facebook, is getting them. Even though they may not be able to calculate the ROI on TV, there’s no question it is the fastest way to get a brand message with emotional content out there. With TV’s new golden age, expect the revitalization of great brand advertising ideas and branded tie-ins that expand to the digital world. Expect brand ideas that will translate to earned media. Expect analytics and technology to be the next competency for which marketers start to build budgets and capabilities. Marketing technology will burgeon as a category.
>> Lynne Seid, partner, Heidrick & Struggles
Matter Of Trust
With the advent of national health care reform and new consumer banking regulations, the 2012 mandate for health care brands and financial service firms alike is to build trust. Trust has become the central currency in health and banking, and this extends now, more than ever, to the old adage of “truth in advertising.” Consumers need to feel they're understood and respected by organizations if they're going to do business with or seek treatment from them.
>> Tom Simons, CEO, PARTNERS+simons
Brands that claim to be “listening and engaging” online, but offer nothing better than a customer service hotline will be outed. Being put on hold and hearing muzak does not work online. In addition, brand journalism and content creation will continue to be important ways to connect with consumers and build trust and loyalty. Quality of audience and how brands maintain a conversation also will matter more than simply number of hits. It seems that anyone (or any cat) can now get 1,000,000 views on You Tube. As an ROI measure, volume in isolation of engagement will become increasingly irrelevant.
>> Simon Sproule, CVP, Global Marketing Communications, Nissan Motor Co.
NEXT PAGE: Optimizing customer value.
Optimizing Customer Value
The marketer’s job in 2012 will remain challenging. Empowered consumers have virtually unlimited choice. Expanded media options make it difficult to value each touch point. And a tsunami of data threatens to overwhelm even the most sophisticated company. In 2012, leaders will continue to transition to more customer-centric strategies in a quest to optimize customer value over time, not just to an immediate direct response. Additionally, brands will embrace an enterprise view of data management, applying it not just to media buying, but also extending it to product and content recommendations across channels. Finally, marketers will explore deeper partnerships with key media partners to better identify and leverage the intersecting interests of mutual customers.
>> Tim Suther, Chief Marketing Officer, Acxiom
Advertisers’ Holy Grail
Social TV–interfaces, devices, and networks that allow television viewers to comment, respond, share, favorite, tweet, and interact with fellow fans in real time while an actual show is being aired on any device (television, laptop screen, tablet, or smartphone–is the Holy Grail for advertisers because they can capture sentiment in real-time, and also capture viewer demographic data for continuous marketing.
In addition, with so many data sources providing information on everything from page views to Twitter volume, senior marketers can be confused by the plethora of vendors and their offerings. Interoperability and open APIs will allow for vendors to work with one another, and also enable marketers to buy from several sources and create customized data feeds that paint a
unique picture of how end-users are interacting with their products and brands.
>> Jake Wengroff, Global Director, Social Media Strategy & Research, Frost & Sullivan
As digital touch points like smartphones and tablets become a larger part of the digital ecosystem, I see the shopping experience radically changing. The ability to compare prices, ratings and reviews, product and service features, obtain friends’ insights, and buy anytime, anywhere, shifts the balance of power to the consumer. Consumer products companies will have to be much more strategic and aggressive in social, mobile, and digital marketing and e-commerce to support both the traditional and new digital touch points, build brand awareness/engagement/loyalty, and grow market share.
>> Ted Woehrle, Chief Marketing Officer, Newell Rubbermaid
There is a substantial shift taking place in how consumers psychologically relate to technology, and this will have a big impact on what marketers need to do to connect. Today there is a psychological shift among mainstream consumers away from a longstanding fear and distrust of technological innovation toward a more adventurous attitude. Consumers are immeasurably more eager to try and trust new things. “New” is no longer scary. New is “better” and an essential measure of the coolness and smarts of retailers and brands.
The challenge for marketers is no longer upping the “wow” with things like virtual shopping mirrors, or trying to convince consumers to download their app. The challenge today is to secure a slice of your consumer’s cognitive bandwidth. The way to do it is through relevancy. This means going back to basics–finding out what your customer needs and using technology to help solve the problem (knowing that your customer is fully open to these solutions).
The past was to find a new bell or whistle–Facebook, QR codes, apps–and imagine how it could benefit a retailer or brand. The future is to take a consumer problem and find a technological solution.
>> Kit Yarrow, Ph.D., Chair, Department of Psychology (photo), and Nigel T. Miner, Professor of Business, Golden Gate University